In my last post, on Malcom Gladwell‘s Outliers, I mentioned that practice is one of the factors that makes us good (or really good) at performing a task. Today, I’ll explore how the brain adjusts to our learning.
For years, scientists have thought that the human brain stops developing around adolescence. Nevertheless, it has been shown that it continues to grow and change beyond the 20-year mark, and up until the mid-twenties. The particular area that becomes more complex after the teenage years is the frontal lobe, which is crucial for thinking processes, such as planning, problem solving, reasoning, and for attention.
It can thus be concluded that our ability to think and pay attention, expands even after adolescence is over.
There is, however, research that seems to attack this theory, not by opposing it completely, but by expanding upon its affirmations. This research has shown that the brain does NOT reach full maturity before we are 30; rather, it continues its development up until late in our 40s. Particularly, it is the prefrontal cortex (responsible for abstract thinking and analysis) that has been shown to change its shape on brain scans.
What does it all mean?
What this new information suggests is that brain capacity broadens as we mature, and it is notably our thinking that improves as years pass.
How is this connected to learning?
Learning happens when the brain has changed in a manner that allows for faster connections (synapses) between the brain cells (neurons), or when the structure of neurons has changed from within. As the brain develops, learning is easier simply because these changes can occur faster.
Compare this idea with molding clay that is warm and soft (in our case, the brain as it is developing), and molding it when it is hardened (the mature brain).
How does practicing come into the picture?
When you practice a certain skill, a set of neurons in your brain begin firing. The more you do that particular task, the faster the neurons are at forming connections with one another, and hence, the better and faster you become at doing it. Moreover, if you keep repeating that task, or using the skill, the brain part in charge of that will change in dimensions, increasing in order to accommodate for the new synapses formed.
There you have it! Practically, our ability to perform a skill is translated as the ability of our neurons to form connections between them. Once we have repeated something enough, we become better at it because our neurons have learnt the road they have to take in order to help you perform.
- It’s Not Your Choice To Be Polite – Our Brains Make Us Behave Around Others (businessinsider.com)
- Neurons show why learning’s tougher as we age (futurity.org)
- 10 Things You Didn’t Know About the Brain (infoboxjulia.wordpress.com)
- Brain is not fully mature until 30s and 40s (phys.org)
- The Talents of a Middle-Aged Brain (http://well.blogs.nytimes.com)